Wednesday, May 27, 2020
Introduction Review of performance is an inspirational to any company which aspires to boost itself towards the levels around the standards or even far beyond. Not a single company would tolerate performance which is below the averages. From deep analysis, authors mind was made to believe that in the absence of a system which rates the employees basing on their performance a company might face the following consequences including poor quality of products, inefficient unsupportive workforce, and loss of scarce resources. Hence, the result will be poor recognition and a bad reputation in the society and the globe as a whole. A tool to help a company in monitoring performance happens to be performance appraisal. Through it, a company can trace the path taken by its employees towards reaching the goals and objectives set well in advance. Critics have argued that, not always performance appraisal has got a positive role to play but also could result to biasness among the top managers and the subordinates as a result of favoritisms among the others. Besides that, performance appraisal is very crucial for the better progress of any company. Henceforth, this essay will address the various parts which are of interest to both the essay writer and the topic itself. Two extremes will be discussed in the essays. On one extreme, it would give an analysis of performance management as a process while on the other extreme culture will pick. The second essay will pick from this checkpoint by developing a fur ther argument concerning the literature in the first essay. Its authors intention to display at least a few societys with differing cultural background and the degree to which they look performance appraisal. This is a tool which could be considered to either impede or hinder organizational development. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PROCESS According to Baron Armstrong, 1998: 38-39, performance management can be defined as a strategic and integrated approach to increasing the effectiveness of organizations by improving the performance of the people who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors, and also can be seen as a continuous process involving reviews that focus on the future rather than the past,ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦ (Beardwell Holden, 2001, pp.538) This is a broad concept which not only concentrates management efforts on performance appraisals but towards identifying whether the overall performance matches with the business strategy and objectives. (Hendry et al, 1997) It involves getting better results from the organisation teams and individuals by measuring and managing performance within agreed frameworks of objectives and competence requirements; assessing and improving performance; identifying and satisfying learning and development needs. Ch aracteristics of Performance Management Controlled by the line managers so as to monitor the progress. Ratings are not much used. Tends to have a focus on objectives, values and behaviours. Less likely to be linked directly with pay. Paperwork isnt so much. In most organisation scenarios, performance management throughout the employees is done through the following: Planning It is the process of setting goals and objectives for the company in its different departments. (Robbins Coulter, 2004) Planning is continuous and very essential as organizational goals keeps on changing due to dynamic world we live in. Once this has been effectively done, its obvious that the objectives will be met. The way things get done change overtime probably due to technological advancement which makes planning to be very essential. Planning answers the following questions which might be asked in employees minds: what, why and how should things get done? Developing increas ing the capacity to perform through training, giving assignments that introduce new skills or higher levels of responsibility, improving work processes, or other methods. (U.S. Office of Personnel Management) Training becomes crucial especially once an organization has identified the need for it which could be probably traced during appraisals conducted. Also, some employees get motivated if there are plenty of growth opportunities. It makes an individual climb a career ladder without much trouble but instead with high support and efforts by the management. Rating means evaluating employee or group performance against the elements and standards in an employees performance plan and assigning a summary rating of record. This is the time when the top management grades or ranks their employees according to the performance levels. Good about this is that scores are not made on group bases but on an individual bases. (U.S. Office of Personnel Management) Rewarding recognizing e mployees, individually and as members of groups, for their performance and acknowledging their contributions to the agencys mission. (U.S. Office of Personnel Management) With rewards any employee within an organisation will be as part of it and have a sense of belongingness. Also, this is a kind of recognition to the efforts done by the employees. Employees also feel that they are valued. Hegewisch, 1992a: 28 says,ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦the pay package is one of the most obvious and visible expressions of the employment relationship; it is the main issue in the exchange between employer and employee, expressing the connection between the labour market, the individuals work and the performance of the employing organization itself. (Beardwell Holden, 2001, pp.506) Monitoring is the process of scrutinizing the day to day activities so that things goes as planned. This is normally done in organizations so as to measure the performance and later provide feedback t o the employees so as to see whether they have deviated away from the goals set or not. This is the venue where employees who dont cope with the standards and regulations are identified during performance appraisals which aims at correcting wrong performance well in-advance. Arriving here, this will be my reference point or area of interest in both my two essays. Let me step a foot further in towards this fascinating part. Performance appraisal is core in any organization due to the reason that, pay structure for employees will be based on performance. It is commonly being heard and believed that, no pain, no gain. Performance appraisals is one among the many functions of the Human Resource Management which is, a strategic and coherent to the management of an organizations most valued assets: the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of its objectives. (Armstrong.M, 2003) Performance appraisal may be defined as a structured for mal interaction between a subordinate and supervisor, that usually takes the form of a periodic interview (annual or semi-annual), in which the work performance of the subordinate is examined and discussed, with a view to identifying weaknesses and strengths as well as opportunities for improvement and skills development. (Archer North Associates, 2006) In most organizations this is frequently done so as to see if the expected standards of the job are met. This dismantles the notion that, once an employee has been selected, hired, placed, inducted and trained for a particular job everything is over. (NCC HRM Module DBA204) Merits of Performance Appraisals Hereunder, are the advantages of this system of rating employees of a particular organisation; Settling grievances accusations and complaints from one side to the other will be at minimal because performance appraisals decide whom to promote, demote or to get rid of. Improve performance when inefficiencies resulting to poor performance are realized, necessary actions are taken with the intention of lifting outcomes or production capacity. Alerts training needs play the role of an alarm which act as the reminder to the company in order to be ahead of the needs and requirements with time and progress. Basis for promotion acts like a sieve that separates the dusks and stones away from the rice. Enables a company to point the best employees who can be given responsibilities and established trust. Way of maintaining contacts this allows the management to be close to the employees so as to keep track of events and any problems faced by the later while at work. Demerits of Performance Appraisals Besides its benefits, this system has got issues too, to be given a careful attention. Hereunder, they are demonstrated: Varying standards Raters tend to apply varying standards, and it can be very difficult to combine or co-relate these. Different individuals are rated depending on their jobs, nature of work and their respective performance. There is no a common standard to be considered as a benchmark while conducting performance appraisals. (NCC HRM Notes) Systematic error or constant error This is a consistent tendency to over-value or under-value ratees on a given characteristic. (NCC HRM Notes) Halo effects Another common deficiency tends to allow one quality to colour the entire appraisal or to make all qualities fit a sort of general impression. This effect defeats a major purpose of ratings and reduces the total rating to a sort of overall, birds eye impression. A ratee who makes a good appearance, for example, may be rated high on such presumably unrelated qua lities as dependability and co-operation. (NCC HRM Notes) Central Tendency Is the inclination to rate all or more qualities and the ratees close to the average or middle of the range. It may result from the fact that raters do not know ratees well enough to express a discriminating opinion. (NCC HRM Notes) Leniency The desire to err on the generous side to avoid controversy by giving each ratee the benefit of the doubt. (NCC HRM Notes) Appraisals as opinions A basic limitation of appraisals is that it is a method of obtaining opinions and is not a method of measuring performance; even at its best, the results should be considered as reflecting opinions and should be used as such. (NCC HRM Notes) Culture Refer to the total way of life of a particular group of people who share common ideas, beliefs, practices and values concerning various issues. Analysts view culture as the way how different people perform their daily activities without confrontation from others. Culture also can be defined as, the collection of traditions, values, policies, and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organization. (Mullins, 2002, p. 802) It is wise enough to begin this sub-theme by examining a combination of culture and human resource management. Culture of individuals pertaining to different nations will greatly affect positively or negatively the human resource management practices like the performance appraisals in any country. So the national cultures are likely to influence the management practices. It is obvious that, people from different places in the world wont have common or similar views concerning performance appraisals due to the fact that research findings have found emerging cultural profiles. However, countries in these profiles differ one another depending on the degree of uncertainty avoidance and the degree of power distance. The profiles happen to be divided into four main parts which are: Village Market commonly known as Anglo/Nordic which is characterized by low uncertainty avoidance and low power distance. Family or tribe known as Asian has low uncertainty avoidance with a high power distance. Well-oiled machine also called Germanic is overruled by high uncertainty avoidance and low power distance. Traditional bureaucracy pyramid of people known as Latin is characterized by both uncertainty avoidance and power distance by being high. This implies high hierarchy with too much bureaucracy. Therefore, it can sometime happen for as many countries to have similar performance appraisals ways in relation to another. In such a scenario, it is possible to align the processes and procedure s of rating employees so as to fit individuals from different cultures. A clear examination on culture will yield as to how variety of human resource practices are perceived and interpreted by members of a company or country. This takes us to the cultural differences as the main reason for different perceptions on when it comes to performance appraisals. By definition, organization is a group of people who share common values and a sense of purpose bound by the structures, systems and culture so as to implement strategic aspects of a company. (Daniels et al, 2009) Considering the reality that an organization wont do without people who might be the stakeholders or even the shareholders originate from different cultures. An organization is required to identify its people and at the same time realize their likes and dislikes so as to be at a safer side. Merits of Culture As a source of Competitive Advantage Michael Porter has argued that nations derive competitive advantage from a set of country-level factors such as the availability of resources, the size and sophistication of the market, the nature of government intervention, and the type of strategic linkages or networks. (Schneider Barsoux, 2003, p.7) For instance, performance appraisals wont do in the Chinese cultural set-up instead they prefer to be assessed by character appraisals for the sake of getting rid of bad feelings which may prevail. Giving poor ratings to subordinates is avoided by Chinese managers so that their personal relationships are not interfered or disturbed. According to culture analysts, its that this could stand as their (Chinese) competitive advantage due to the fact that there is no any sought of embarrassment. Instead to the Chinese it could result to building loyal and committed employees as no annoying is done to them. Because they are not used to direc t criticism at all, you have to be very sensitive. You cannot tell them that they are doing a lousy job. You have to focus on the positive. If youre sensitive enough they accept it, and use it themselves later on when dealing with their own peopleÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦. One should be very sensitive, and you can do a lot of damage if notÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦. (p. 318). (Schneider Barsoux, 2003, p. 164) Creates a uniqueness Accounts for the degree of variations between managers and companys around the world. The truth is people are subjective, so even the way they perceive things may be very different. This will alert various stakeholders to have awareness when dealing with people from other cultures. (Mullins, 2002, p. 807) One may experience different situations and scenarios when working with either the British firms or Chinese firms. It seems the British are much more concerned with the performance in terms of productivity and sales volume so as to g enerate more income and profits whereas the Chinese are both task-focused and more of a people-oriented looking at appraising on the employees degrees of integrity and loyalty. A good benchmarking tool To people and firms from various cultural background not performing well in different industries can view successful ones on how they use the appraisal systems so as to bring them to standards. As a matter of truth culture is not only acquired but it could also be learned and adapted too. Demerits of Culture Culture is deeply enrooted Culture in reality is deeply embedded in people and organizations. This may make the idea of gathering people from various cultural backgrounds difficult and more intense. At times, it is too hard to change how an individual is shaped with his or her beliefs, values and attitudes which he or she had been used long back. Due to this, pushing on practices like performance appraisals could result towards resistance from those who dont prefer it. The origin of power Analysts have seen this as an obstacle probably due to the truth that the top most management who share a common set of goals and objectives are not from different cultural backgrounds. This has an impact to the subordinates having various cultures who will be exerted a lot of pressures. Despise of a certain culture It may happen when people from different cultures meet some of them will pretend or consider themselves to be so superior and capable than the rest who are termed as inf erior. This situation might lead the powerful ones to impose practices like performance appraisals without considering opinions from the inferior. Cultural Impacts Problems due to the presence of multi-cultures in an organization are inevitable because the truth is that people will have at-least some differences which may shape their attitudes, values, beliefs and underlying assumptions. In most scenarios, a person may perceive the things he or she does as better off than those of others. If I happen to define cultural impact, I would have said that; it refers to the negative consequences undergone by members of a particular group probably due to lack of cross cultural awareness. These impacts will prevail at places where the management and its people fail to study and accept the values and beliefs of other people within and outside the organization. So far, culture hasnt been acknowledged or rather perceived as a unifying force due to the reason that everyone thinks his or her culture happens to be the best. The tendency to ignore other peoples cultures may have led to the following issues which need extra attention to come with approp riate solutions. These cultural impacts could be: Cultural shock There is no shortage of evidence of cross-cultural friction between businesses. In every cross-border alliance there are seeds of potential cultural conflict and misunderstanding. (Schneider Barsoux, 2003, pg.9) This is a situation whereby individuals become puzzled with how activities are carried on. For example, if performance appraisals involve too much of a paperwork it might be a tensing situation for those not used such processes. Cultural clashes These may prevail because in a multi-cultural scenario some people wont appreciate practices such as performance appraisals. Disputes or misunderstandings between those who accept performance appraisals and those in the other extreme could be more serious. Cultural segregation: Countering the impacts In turn the solution on how the management of a company could deal with cultural issues is to consider cultural segregation so as to minimize any of the cultural impacts mentioned above pertaining to differing cultures. Cultural segregation is all about separating but making all the parties equal. Recommendation Performance appraisals system need to be cross-checked with the purpose of minimizing if not getting rid of disputes and further work place complications which could probably take the organization and its people to chaos and a feeling of insecure. This should not be implemented as a platform to penalize others who dont perform in the right way. It should rather be one that intends to up-grade and motivate employees. The appraisers should study their own perceptions and motives first. However, incentives following good performance shown should not only be in monetary terms but it should take non-financial incentives too. Some cultures do not put much more consideration on money as a motivator but people feel the importance of status, vacation time, further training and development to help in their career progression. For example, Indonesians manage their culture by a group process, and everybody is linked together as a team. Distributing money differently amongst the team did not go over all that well; so, weve come to the conclusions that pay for performance is not suitable for Indonesia. (Schneider Barsoux, 2003, p.167) On the part of the management, it is essential to review on the targets made due to the fact that they could possibly be a nightmare during the day. For instance, trying to impose performance appraisals in a company with multi-cultured staff including the Chinese is a dream. Conclusion To each and every society not all the aspects of human resource management will be weighed as equally as done by the rest of the society. Although, performance appraisals are mostly used to measure the way the jobs are performed with the aim of observing whether goals had been met doesnt mean it will be liked by members coming from different cultural backgrounds. Also, for a long time performance appraisals was believed to be a system that is linked to pay (salary increments) and incentives. However, it is high time for firms to think on other ways too which will minimize the cultural impacts upon people from different cultures. On the other hand to some individuals salary increment is not a big deal compared to training and others mentioned earlier above in the recommendation. The reason behind the preceding disasters is not only that behavior, values, and beliefs are different across cultures, but also that their importance to those cultures should not be underestimated. ( Schneider Barsoux, 2003, p.10) Culture can be a binding or a destroying force towards performance appraisals. Whether engaging in strategic alliances, setting up operations abroad, or attracting the local market, companies need to discover how culture can be harnessed to drive business forward. (Schneider Barsoux, 2003, p.10) Considering the country cultural profiles it is clear that all the countries and its people have got varying power distance and uncertainty avoidance. Therefore, for this reason it is obviously that a lot of cultural differences in relation to performance appraisals should be recognized first before moving forward. The benefit of recognizing the differences are capability of solving future threats and exposed to opportunities that could lead to growth and development for the firms. Furthermore, arriving at an end of this piece of literature it marks an end of the first essay but a continuation for the second essay which builds an argument on the firs t essay. The author has looked upon performance appraisals as not the only method of rating employees but also there are alternatives to consider so as minimizing disputes and misunderstandings among multi-cultures in a firm. The methods to be argued against in second essay mostly happen to be character appraisals or combination of both, performance and character appraisals.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
In the following reflective response, I shall try to explain few of WolfÃ¢â¬â¢s central arguments in Europe and the People without History (1981). In doing so, I shall attempt to demonstrate my understanding and appreciation of WolfÃ¢â¬â¢s ontological premises. The central assertion of Wolf resonates with what C. W. Mills argues in The Sociological Imagination (1959). Mills stresses the importance of crafting a sociological imagination which would enable sociologists (and other academic professionals related to the field of humanities as well as general audience) to be cognizant of the relationship between their personal experiences and the wider society. In other words, the sociological imagination is the proper recognition of the dialectical interplay between micro and macro history. When sociologists take into account a single case, they should be aware of its broader context, i.e. the totality in which it exists. That totality not only encompasses geography and social setting s, but also the macro history. Wolf, in a similar fashion, asserts the importance of this totality. This theme is also apparent in various works of scholars like E. Wallenstein, Edward Said, Samir Amin and A. G. Frank. I am in a complete agreement with Wolf (and all other scholars) here. Most of the problems of the modern day world emanate from these misconceived notions - USA, Middle East, European culture, East, West, First World, Third World. In my opinion, WolfÃ¢â¬â¢s argument is justified when he says thatShow MoreRelatedContemporary Issues in Management Accounting211377 Words Ã |Ã 846 PagesMichael Bromwich is an exemplar of all that is good about the British tradition of academic accounting. Serious in intent, he has striven both to illuminate practice and to provide ways of improving it. Although always appealing to his economic understandings, he has been open to a wide variety of other ideas, recognizing their intellectual strengths and capabilities rather than maki ng artificial distinctions between what is acceptable and what is not. He also has contributed widely to the accounting
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Gaddis wrote, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past, to inform audiences why a historical consciousness should matter to us today. He used knowledge from past historians to portray the method that historical writings represent what cannot replicate. Gaddis worked to describe historical consciousness using visual imagery to express metaphors because science, history, and art all depend on metaphors. The past is something we can never have and through metaphors and representation, Gaddis accurately illustrates the meaning of a historian and how history cannot relive, retrieve or rerun but can only represent it. History can be considered a metaphor and representation because it is the way people represent it. Using history as a way to sum up past events is applying the word to an action. Gaddis describes history as a metaphor and representation by showcasing a study of the past as a way to prepare for the future by expanding experiences to strike a balance and paint a me taphor. A historian is able to strike a balance once there is a recognition that there is a trade-off between literal and abstract representation. Meaning abstractions make generalizations to hold up over time which oversimplify complex realities to overcome different constraints that separate in time from their subjects. For a historian to paint a metaphor, one must consider tension between significance and insignificance, polarities of generalization and particularization, the gap betweenShow MoreRelatedBreaking The Slump : Baseball934 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageschronology of baseball and how it the happenings of the world influenced this sport. Baseball has had a great following and Alexander explains the National pastime in a way that feels like you are right there during the season. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Commercial Law for Negligance of Product. Answer: Introduction Rebecca and Michelle visited a bar and consumed wine there. Michelle was too drunk and was driving the car while returning. Eventually, she ended up driving dangerously and in spite of repeated warnings from Rebecca, continued driving and subsequently crashed the car. Rebecca sustained serious injuries because of this and thus wanted to sue Michelle for negligence. This issue shall be discussed in this assignment. Issues There are certain issues that arise in this matter. These can be identified as under: Whether the requirements of the tort of negligence are satisfied in the given situation? Whether Rebecca can sue Michelle for being negligent in the matter? Rules The tort of negligence can be defined as a failure on the part of the defendant towards exercising the care that would have been taken by a reasonable, prudent man in similar circumstances (Gnych v Polish Club Limited, ). The harm that is caused because of this failure to the plaintiff must be a direct cause of the matter, and it should have been foreseeable in the matter. Thus, it can be said that there are four elements of substantiating a claim of negligence (Claimsjournal.com, 2016). These are that the defendant should have a duty of care towards the plaintiff. The defendant should make a breach of that duty of care that was owed to him; the breach should have resulted in some damage to the plaintiff; and the damage that is caused should not be remote in nature (Oberdiek, 2013). However, it should also be noted that there are certain defenses that can be taken by the defendant whenever a suit of negligence is initiated against him (Bolton v Stone, ). These defenses are also substantiated under the Civil Liability Act in Australia. Under section 23 of the Act, it contributory negligence is proved in any matter, then the liability of the defendant comes down substantially (Fletcher, 2008). Intoxication is one of the grounds that can attract a presumption of contributory negligence under Section 5 of the Civil Liability Act (Salmond, 2011). The court has the powers to reduce the damages by 100% in such instances. However, it should be noted that the courts determine the question of contributory negligence by facts (Charlesworth and Percy, 2012). There are two stages involved in this process. While the first determines the negligence on the part of the plaintiff, on the second level, a percentile value is assigned to the same (Marcolongo v Chen, ). Further, Under Section 16 and 17 of the Civil Liability Act, obvious risks and voluntary assumption of risk have been substantiated to be grounds of negligence. It has been stated that only if a person can prove that he was unaware of the risk, then can he say that there was no contribution towards the risk (Hobartlegal.org.au, 2016). Also, if a person understands that there is an obvious risk in any matter, then the same should be seen from the perspective of a reasonably prudent person and the knowledge of the presence of such risk. It substantiates a claim that the plaintiff himself is responsible for negligence, and the defendant is not liable in the matter (Cooke, 2007). Application The above-discussed rules shall now be applied in the given scenario and then an analysis of the same shall be made. Michele and Rebecca were drunk. They consumed a lot of wine out of their wish. While they were coming back home, technically, it could be said that driving on the part of any of them could have been negligent. In spite of knowing that they had consumed alcoholic beverages, they chose to drive their vehicle, and this apparently proves the negligence on both of their parts. Subsequently, Rebecca realized that the condition of Michelle was worse and was driving dangerously. This proves that Rebecca was aware that Michelle was not capable enough to drive on that particular night. Moreover, before when the drive back home commenced, Rebecca had already realized that Michelle was too drunk. Thus, it can be said that it would have been justified on her part not to accept the fact that Michelle would be driving. But she chose the other way round and accepted a ride home anyway . Thus, it can be conclusively said on this point that Rebecca contributed to the negligence. It is not being argued that there was no negligence on the part of Michelle. She owed a duty of care towards Rebecca, and she also made a breach of that duty care which any other reasonable, prudent person would not have made. It is also understood that all the damages that Rebecca faced were because of the negligence on the part of Michelle and there was no remote aspect to the problems undergone by her. But at the same time, it is also being argued here that Rebecca had a liability of contributory negligence in the matter because, in spite of knowing that Michelle was not competent to drive on that night, she chose to take the ride. Moreover, the risk that is associated with the matter is very obvious, and the acceptance of the risk by Rebecca also indicates the voluntary acceptance of the risk by her. Any prudent and reasonable person would have understood the risk that is being inflicted when Michelle is executing the act of drunk driving, and even then Rebecca herself acceded to the risk. This also substantiates the contributory negligence on the part of Rebecca that is being argued in the matter. Eventually, the car met with an accident, and Rebecca underwent several injuries including a broken leg. In such circumstances, even if Rebecca asks for compensation from Michelle for her injuries, those claims cannot be substantiated because of her contribution to the negligence of Michelle. Conclusion Thus, from the above discussion, it can be concluded on the following points: That Michelle is liable in the matter of negligence; That though Michelle is liable for negligence yet Rebecca cannot claim for the indemnification of losses from her because of her contributory negligence in the matter. References Bolton v Stone AC p.850. Charlesworth, J. and Percy, R. (2012).Charlesworth Percy on negligence. 9th ed. London: Sweet Maxwell. Claimsjournal.com. (2016). [online] Available at: https://www.claimsjournal.com/news/national/2014/01/02/242115.htm [Accessed 5 Sep. 2016]. Cooke, P. (2007).Law of tort. Harlow: Longman. Fletcher, G. (2008).Tort liability for human rights abuses. Oxford: Hart Pub. Gnych v Polish Club Limited HCA p.23. Hobartlegal.org.au. (2016).Defences to the Tort of Negligence | Hobart Community Legal Service. [online] Available at: https://www.hobartlegal.org.au/tasmanian-law-handbook/accidents-and-insurance/negligence/defences-tort-negligence [Accessed 5 Sep. 2016]. Marcolongo v Chen HCA p.3. Oberdiek, J. (2013).Philosophical foundations of the law of torts. Salmond, J. (2011).The law of torts. London: Sweet Maxwell.
Thursday, April 16, 2020
Abstract The objective of determining the amount of face consciousness among people from the same races and those from different races is an interesting field of study. It has been discovered that most people are not able to distinguish the difference between two people who are of different racial backgrounds from theirs.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Race biases in face recognition specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is even more difficult if the person encounters both groups of these people at different intervals in the society. People of the same race are also believed to have the same habits and so, it is a common occurrence when people are judged based on their perceived racial backgrounds. Introduction Race bias in face recognition is a common issue among many people from all walks of life. For most people, it is always easy for them to identify the faces of people from their own races than from other races. The result of this has always been a misidentification which most of the times leads to incrimination of people who are innocent. People who have never interacted with other races experience difficulties in distinguishing the difference existing between people of the same race that they do not constitute. This is different when identifying people from their own race as they are able to tell the difference. One of the most important research questions in relation to this subject is whether the difference in visual signals is extorted from the same race, and other race facial characteristic. According to the research carried out by Bothwell and his colleagues (1989) a conclusion was drawn that Ã¢â¬Å"the image processing system is less sensitive to spatial relations between features in other-race faces than in the same race facesÃ¢â¬ (20). This conjecture is proved by the comparison of recognition capacity in faces that are upright and the ones which are inverted. The effect of face inversion is a deficiency in the roots ability and a reduction in the cognitive capacity of the observer or participant in the experiment.Advertising Looking for report on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Methodology The first step in this case, is to determine the sample over which the assessment will be carried out. This involves the selection of twenty people belonging to different races. A fifty Ã¢â¬â fifty difference in gender will be employed to make the outcome of the experiment more convincing and useful. The stimuli should consist of passport photographs taken from the front. They should have the black and white shade and categorized according to gender. The person preparing this test should ensure that none of these people has unique physical characteristics such as long hair, different style of clothing or even eye glasses. The other recommendation is that half of this population should consis t of one race and the other half the other race under consideration. Visual basic software is then used to describe these images to the people participating in the experiment. Seated at approximately one meter from the screen of the computer, the participants are requested to carefully examine the images. These are displayed randomly at an interval of about three seconds. A constraint is created such that three consecutive images should not for people from the same race. After a specific period of just running the images on the screen, the other half of the images that had been presented are displayed before the participants. The participants are not aware that the images being displayed are different from the previous ones and so they are asked to select a yes if they are able to recognize a face and a no if they had never seen it before. The results are rated on 7 point scale and finally the participants fill out forms describing their racial backgrounds including the racial chara cteristics of the community they grew up around. From the experiment, the following graph was plotted. Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Race biases in face recognition specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Discussion Form the graph above, it was clearly identified that first, the students were able to identify the aligned faces better than the misaligned ones. The rate of acceptance was however, higher amongst people of the same race in the aligned case. As for the misaligned faces, the rate of acceptance was lower in other races than in the individual race. The participants were able to recognize the people behind the images of the misaligned faces better when the person was from their racial background. People who grew up in neighborhoods with different races were able to recognize the person behind the images more accurately irrespective of their racial affiliations. This owe to the fact that they have interacted with people from many races to the extent that they can tell even in the event of the misaligned faces. Many researchers have suggested that people from different racial backgrounds have physical features and facial expressions that resemble. The conclusion drawn from the whole experiment is that, the amalgamated effects on the faces of the sample population were experienced more with the same race image compared other race faces, and the substance of this process of mis-aligning the faces demonstrate how the relations between people of the same race are more stimuli related. According to Yin (1968) Ã¢â¬Å"these findings provide direct evidence that the representations underlying the holistic facial recognition are coarsely defined, being able to accommodate two faces of a different race to a certain extentÃ¢â¬ (141). He goes on to explain that Ã¢â¬Å"these representations are considered specific to the extent that the whole procedure is more significant for faces with which one has considerable visual experiences referred to as same race or SR facesÃ¢â¬ (141). Besides that this mindset scholar made an assumption that Ã¢â¬Å"individuals in diverse societyÃ¢â¬â¢s records that people of other races resemble exclusively in facial characteristicsÃ¢â¬ (142).Advertising Looking for report on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This is one of the reasons contributing to the problem of racial discrimination. The characteristics of most people are judged basing on the racial community they originate. As a result, most people have been complaining that they are being treated unfairly owing to the generalization of their racial characteristics. Blacks in the United States for example, are believed to be hooligans and as a result of this, a large percentage of them are jailed despite them being innocent. The best example of this is the case presented by Bothwell and his colleagues. A white woman was raped by a black man, and when this lady was given photos of the people who matched her description, she picked the wrong person. After ten years, this lady came up and revealed that all the people in the pictures resembled and so she just picked up any one of them. This is what race biases in face recognition entail. An understanding of this issue is important as it will prevent a recurrent of such cases. According to the results obtained from this experiment, the subjects or participants seem to be more precise on the when identifying the misaligned faces compared to the aligned ones. The interaction amongst the members of the same race, the race of the faces used as samples and the alignments showed a high level of importance as indicated by the projections. Another conclusion assessed from these projections is that the combined effect was more pronounced in the case of the misaligned faces more than the aligned faces. Most of the participants were able to identify the images based on the top part of the face. There is no significant difference in the results obtained when the faces are aligned for the races in question. Conclusion This experiment can suggest that most people identify members of their races when their faces are aligned. Most of them could not tell the difference while observing the lower part of the faces in the misaligned faces while a majority of them were able to make ap propriate judgments from the top part of the faces. Conclusions drawn from this experiment, and many others related to it is that Ã¢â¬Å"other-race effect is brought about by early categorization of race at the expense of individual characteristicsÃ¢â¬ (Yin, 1968). The moment an individual is perceived to belong to a particular racial background; other traits they control become irrelevant as their identity is judged from this. Reference List Bothwell, R.K., Brigham, J.C., Malpass, R.S. (1989). Ã¢â¬Å"Cross-racial identiÃ¯ ¬ cationÃ¢â¬ . Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 19Ã¢â¬â25. Yin, R. K. (1968). Ã¢â¬Å"Looking at upside-down facesÃ¢â¬ . Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 141-145. This report on Race biases in face recognition was written and submitted by user Lexi House to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Friday, March 13, 2020
Muscular Dystrophy is a disease with no cure essays Muscular Dystrophy is a disease with no cure. While there is medication, physical therapy, and surgery, which can help with the symptoms, only research trials are providing hope for those with this disease. The stress is only compounded when the side effects of using one of these palliative treatments cause more harms than good. Inevitably the patient must make an informed decision before deciding on which treatment is best for them. With all the medications in the United States not one works on curing muscular dystrophy. Doctors will often prescribe Corticosteroid medications such as, Prednisone, which may help improve muscle strength (Discovery Health.com). For some patients, their doctor may prescribe phenyotin, which may be used to treat the delayed muscle relaxation (CNN.com) As with any medication there are side effects to these drugs that may cause more harm than good. According to a article by Ana Lucia Langer, the side effects with prednisone use can not be dismissed. Ms. Langer states nine side effects of this drug. Some of the worst ones are diabetes, osteoporosis, and suppression of the supra-renal or adrenal glandule (www.distrofiamuscular.net). One of the best treatments for muscular dystrophy is physical therapy. According to an article on A Healthy Me website, Physical therapy is used to maintain the range of motion of affected muscles and to prevent or delay contractures. Braces may also be worn, but starting exercise early can have a great effect on the muscles. The author of this article states that strenuous exercise is not recommended, since it may damage muscles further. Surgery is never without the presence of risk. Some types of surgery has been effective in providing relief from contractures, such as tenotomy surgery. Ahealthyme.com states that this surgery is used to cut the contractured muscle and the limb is braced in its normal resting position to he...
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Fast-food outlets and poor health in America - Essay Example There has been an increase in the number of convenience and fast food stores across America. For this reason, many low income earners purchase their food from these stores as opposed to buying from grocery stores and supermarkets. This purchasing behavior has exposed millions of Americans to unhealthy foods. The number of obesity and other health related cases has been on the rise. This has sparked debate on whether these fast food stores should be blamed for this trend, or if the blame should lie squarely in the hands of the consumer. For instance, Brownlee, Cohen and Zinczenko argue that fast food outlets have played a big role in encouraging unhealthy consumption habits. This paper aims to contribute to this debate by arguing that fast food outlets have contributed to this problem significantly by encouraging and enticing consumers to buy from them. Fast-food outlets market their products to consumers, mainly children, foods that have health hazards without proper warnings and labels. In the essay by David Zinczenko, the author highlights how advertisements from fast-food outlets donÃ¢â¬â¢t come with warning labels. For example, an outlet may list its chicken salad as containing 150 calories, yet the dressing, almonds and noodles that come with it account for additional 470 calories. This argument clearly shows how these fast food outlets hide information from the consumers that would otherwise help the consumers make better choices.